political books

Gender and Politics in India (Themes in Politics)Caste Politics and Society in TamilnaduThe political career of K. Kamaraj: A study in the politics of Tamilnadu, 1920-1975The political career of E.V. Ramasami Naicker: A study in the politics of Tamilnadu, 1920-1949Dynamics of State Politics: KeralaPolitics of Congress Factionalism in Kerala since 1982

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ISBN

ADVANTAGES OF ISBN


Ø ISBN is a unique international identifier for monographic publications; assigning a number replaces the handling of long bibliographic descriptive records. Time and staff are saved and copying mistakes are avoided.


Ø The ISBN allows compilation and updating of book trade directories and bibliographic databases, such as catalogues of books-in-print. Information on available books can be found easily.


Ø Ordering and distribution of books is mainly executed by ISBN; that is a fast and efficient method.


Ø The ISBN is a machine-readable in the form of a 13-digit EAN.UCC bar code. This is fast system and avoids mistakes.


Ø The ISBN is needed for running of electronic point-of-sale systems in bookshops.


Ø Rights management is mainly done on the basis of ISBN.


Ø The ISBN does the accumulation of sales data. This enables the varying successes of different product forms and editions of publications to be monitored, as well as enabling comparisons between different subject areas and even different publishing houses.


Ø The national lending right in some countries is based on the ISBN. Such schemes enable authors and illustrators to receive payments proportionate to the number of times that their books are lent out by public libraries.
Liabilities Definition
Issued Capital: Capital which is issued in par value (this used to be fully paid or may not)
Paid up Capital: Capital,which is fully paid by the investors. Its base is issued capital.
Equity: It represents paid up capital + general reserve including their retained earning.
Accounts Payable - Money owed (payable) to suppliers for goods or services purchased on credit that must be paid within a year.
Short-Term Debt - represents the amount of borrowings (principal and interest) that must be paid in the near future (usually within one year).
Other Current Liabilities - includes all other liabilities not assigned to Short-Term Debt or Accounts Payable.
Total Current Liabilities - equals Accounts Payable + Short-Term Debt + Other Current Liabilities. Total Current Liabilities is the total amount of liabilities that are considered to be due within a relatively short period of time, usually a year.
Long-Term Debt - represents the amount of borrowings due more than one year from the date of the balance sheet.
Other Non current Liabilities - The liabilities that are not assigned to Long-Term Debt or deferred Income Taxes.
Total Liabilities - equals Total Current Liabilities + Total Non current Liabilities.
Total Balance: Sum of all above particulars.

Assets Definition 
Cash - Cash consists of cash and may include cash-like items such as short-term investments that can be quickly converted to cash.
Net Receivables - Net Receivables are amounts owed to the company, net of any provisions for bad debts.
Inventories - is merchandised bought for resale or supplies and raw materials purchased for use in revenue producing operations.
Other Current Assets - includes prepayments, deferred charges, and amounts (other than trade accounts) due from parents and subsidiaries. It also includes any other current assets that are not assigned to cash and cash equivalents, receivables, or inventories.
Total Current Assets - equals Cash and Equivalents + Receivables + Inventories + Other Current Assets. Total Current Assets is the total amount of assets that are considered to be convertible into cash within a relatively short period of time, usually a year.
Net Fixed Assets - are the assets of a company that are of a relatively permanent nature and are not intended for resale, such as property, plants, and equipment. The figure is stated as cost minus accumulated depreciation and amortization.
Other Non current Assets - Assets that are not assigned to Net Fixed Assets or intangibles.
Total Assets – sum of all above particulars.
Profit and Loss Definition 
Revenue - total sales from operations. For bank and finance it’s interest income from their usual investment.
Cost of Goods Sold- includes all expenses directly associated with the production of goods or services the company sells (such as material, labor, overhead). It does not include SG&A or depreciation. While in Bank and Finance we could see interest expenses for deposit and borrowing.
Gross Profit - equals Revenue minus Cost of Goods Sold. It identifies the amount available to cover other operating expenses.
Gross Profit Margin- equals Gross Profit divided by Revenue, expressed as a percentage. The percentage represents the amount of each dollar of Revenue that results in Gross Profit.
Non operating Income – is a residual category into which miscellaneous Non operating revenues and expenses are netted.
Total operating Income - the sum of gross profit+ non operating income is taken as total operating income.
SG&A Expenses -
Selling, General, and Administrative Expenses include all salaries, indirect production, marketing, and general corporate expenses.
Depreciation and Amortization - is a non-cash charge that represents a reduction in the value of fixed assets due to wear, age, or obsolescence. This figure also includes amortization of leased property, intangibles, and goodwill, and depletion.
Non operating Expenses – is the combination of "Other Taxes" and "Interest Expense." "Other Taxes," also known as other operating expenses, for most companies includes taxes other than income taxes (except excise taxes, which the company does not actually pay, but only collects on behalf of the government). For financial companies, all expenses other than interest expense and income taxes are included in Other Taxes. "Interest Expense" is all fixed interest expenses net of capitalized interest. This category also includes dividends on preferred stock of unconsolidated subsidiaries.
Total operating expenses- staff expenses+ depreciation and the non operating expenses are taken as operating expenses.

Operating Income –
Total operating Income minus total operating expenses. It is the income from current operations.
Operating Margin - Operating Margin equals Operating Income divided by Revenue, expressed as a percentage.
Income Before Taxes - Income Before Taxes is the income from total operations (continuing + discontinued operations).
Net profit- is taken as profit after provisions, staff bonus and tax deducted from income before tax.
Earning per share (EPS) Net profit to the shares.
Dividends per Share - The cash payment, per share, made by the company to its shareholders. Payment is usually made quarterly, but can be paid biannually
Cash flow Definition 

Net Operating Cash Flow -
Net Cash Flow from Operating Activities is taken directly from the Statement of Cash Flows.

Net Investing Cash Flow -
Net Cash Flow from Investing Activities is taken directly from the Statement of Cash Flows.

Net Financing Cash Flow -
Net Cash Flow from Financing Activities is taken directly from the Statement of Cash Flows.
Net Change in Cash -
is the difference between the Cash and Cash Equivalents at the beginning of the reporting period minus the amount at the end of the reporting period.
Depreciation & Amortization is a non-cash charge that represents a reduction in the value of fixed assets due to wear, age, or obsolescence. This figure also includes amortization of leased property, intangibles, and goodwill, and depletion. This number is an add-back to the Statement of Cash Flows.

Capital Expenditures -
s are capital outlays undertaken by the firm - - this number is the "Purchase of Property Plant and Equipment" figure from the Statement of Cash Flows.
Cash Dividends Paid - The cash payment made by the company to its shareholders. Payment is usually made quarterly, but can be paid biannually

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Reduce Your Carbon Footprint

Reduce the Carbon Footprint of Your Car


  • Maintenance - Keep your car tuned up and running efficiently.
  • More Maintenance - Replace your air, oil and fuel filters according to schedule.
  • Tires - Keep your tires properly inflated (just this can save 400-700 pounds of CO2 per year).
  • Drive better - Studies have shown up to 30% of the difference in miles per gallon (MPG) is due to driving habits alone. You could save more than a ton of CO2 per year by:

- Accelerating slowly and smoothly
- Driving the speed limit
- Maintaining a steady speed
- Anticipating your stops and starts

Make your next vehicle a fuel-efficient one - Check out EPA’s Green Vehicle Guide for info on miles per gallon as well as EPA SmartWay® certified vehicles, meeting rigorous air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions standards.
Household fuel efficiency - If your household has two cars and one is used mostly for commuting, make the commuting car a real gas sipper if you can’t for both.

Reduce the Carbon Footprint of Your Travel

A lot of our emissions come from just being inefficient or not deliberate with our daily decisions. Every day think about how you could reduce the miles you drive and pretty soon you’ll start identifying lots of opportunities:

Combine your trip with another.
Carpool - Just once a week saves 20%.
Check out your transit options - It may not work for you every time, but use it when it does.
What about your bike? - Get in shape, too!
Only a mile? - Walk.
Think it through - Do you need to take this trip at all?
Get it on the Internet.
Optimize - Save this trip for later and combine with another.
Telecommute - Work from home occasionally.
Reduce the Carbon Footprint of Your Air Travel

Think about the trip - Can you combine it with another or get more done on one trip?
Train - For some trips the train may be a good choice for you.
Fly nonstop - Nonstop flights are better than connecting flights (for many reasons).
When you get there - Do some research ahead of time to find better ground travel options (shuttles, transit, trains, etc.) at your destination.
Lodging - Ask your hotel about their environmental commitment and steps they’re taking to reduce, offset.
While you’re away - Turn your stuff off. Turn down your thermostat and your water heater; turn off your electronics (even smarter: unplug them to protect from electrical storms). What’s the point of things being on with no one there?
More tips - Take a look at these green travel tips.

Reduce the Carbon Footprint of Your Home

Programmable thermostat – Costs about $50 or less and will save you that much or more in the first year.
Weatherstripping and Caulking – Costs almost nothing while reducing your energy use, reducing drafts and improving comfort.

image

Lighting – Compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) have that cool curly shape and save more than 2/3rds of the energy of a regular incandescent. Each bulb can save $40 or more over its lifetime. Read the box or instructions for safe disposal.

Heating and Cooling - Keep your heating and cooling system(s) tuned. When it’s time to replace, do your research and ask for ENERGY STAR.
Insulation – Weatherstripping, caulking and insulation work together to save you energy, improve the comfort of your home, make it quieter and help you save money.
Water-Conserving Showerheads & Toilets – You can reduce water and heating costs, even in your bathroom. To save even more water, turn the faucet off when brushing or shaving. These simple changes and steps can save many thousands of gallons of water annually.

Appliances – Always pay attention to the total lifetime cost, including energy—not just the price tag. Look for the ENERGY STAR label (check out energystar.gov).
Bigger isn’t always better - Just get the size you need; do you really need that extra refrigerator in the basement?
Electronics – Likewise, look for ENERGY STAR. And do like your Mom said- turn things off. If you’re going away or not using an item for awhile, unplug it to prevent “vampire” energy loss from electricity usage on standby.

Windows – These can be expensive, but when it’s time to replace them, make sure they are ENERGY STAR rated.
Solar – We love solar, but make sure you reduce your energy load first to keep your costs down.
New Home – Consider an energy-efficient ENERGY STAR Home.

Reduce the Carbon Footprint of Your Office

Enable your power management - so your computer and monitor shut down.
Do you need to print?- Consider saving a file on your computer, in a flash drive or emailing it.
Double-side print - Saves paper too.
Can you carpool or transit or bike to work? See above.
Open up - If you have windows you can open, use them to intelligently save energy.
Turn ‘em off - Only use the lights you need. If you’re using your computer you may not need your office lights on too.
Occupancy sensors - Shut off lights in unused rooms. Better, get your building to install occupancy sensors.
Bring your lunch - Or walk to the local eatery instead of driving.
Reduce the Carbon Footprint of Your Life

Only 40% of the average American’s carbon footprint is due to their direct energy use. The other 60% is indirect; it comes from everything we buy and use—goods and services. Pay attention to your consumption and waste habits, and you’ll find lots of opportunities to conserve.

Reduce. Reuse. Recycle.
You’ve heard it before, but it’s still great advice. Manufacturing products produces an average 4-8 pounds of CO2 for every pound of manufactured product.
image

Donate old electronics to charity. Donate your old cell phone, PDA, digital camera, or iPod to Recycling for Charities and benefit the charity of your choice!
Stop your junk mail with the help of 41pounds, a nonprofit service that contacts dozens of direct mailers to remove your name from their lists.
Buy locally if possible. Shipping burns fuel. A 5-pound package shipped by air across the country creates 12 pounds of CO2 (3 ½ pounds if shipped by truck).
Eat less meat. If you’re already a vegetarian, you save at least 3,000 pounds of CO2 per year compared to meat eaters. If you’re not a vegetarian, just increase the number of vegetarian meals you eat each week by one or two. Also, poultry is less greenhouse gas intensive than beef.
Don’t waste food. Mom was right. About one-quarter of all the food prepared annually in the U.S., for example, gets tossed, producing methane in landfills as well as carbon emissions from transporting wasted food.

Software eshop

my article! my experience!

Attention for business owners, educational institutes, big companies, shop owners, software buyers & sales man!
  1. Do not buy any softwares done by VB or VB.net it is waste your money
  2. Do not buy embedded billing machines (not handheld machine that purpose is different) because you can buy a computer with software in that price and any people can service that and computer is multi purpose, but in billing machine that company only service
  3. Use website online eservices always and promote advanced technologies
  4. Do not ask more EMD in tender and don't prefer local companies give chances to new other companies, small companies also can do that work.
  5. Some government organization bargain again in tender quote also, very same already we quote very low because of tender.
  6. More government organizations cannot consider NSIC registration. it is now waste. Give importance to NSIC registration and respect government orders. then why should they charge for every 2 years. they will give a permanent registration certificate like DIC.
  7. and also do not believe English speaking only in marketing view their business reputation and service
  8. Do not place a internal/residential web designer for website maintenance. that is waste your money and furnitures. give outsource and relax. and this idea is may be useful for computer service engr recruitment.
    Salary & AMC comparison calculation:
    Webdesigner Min. salary = Rs.6000 x 12 months = Rs.72,000
    but company charges AMC for 12 months = Rs.10,000 only
    Service Engr:
    Min. Salary = Rs. 5000 x 12 = Rs. 60,000
    but company charges AMC for 12 months for 500 PC's= Rs.1000 x 500 = Rs. 5,00,000 only
  9. DO not give software projects to single man, students and small company for low cost, because they will not give full service support for a long time & they will go jobs for a higher salary, moreover they do not able to follow quality standards also. give orders to a company atleast stand for last 3 years.
  10. Request for job seekers and employees please be sure to work in a company for atleast 1 year. and do not waste time, training and resources of your trained company
  11. Register for ebills, epayment and ebrouchers, so that we reduce paper use and give more life to trees.
  12. We loss more in our business due to power cut/shutdowns & internet problems and virus problems
  13. do not waste business man time
  14. Do not ban technologies development paypal ban in indian transaction will a great drawback for all small IT companies
  15. Do not believe ads like 50% offer, free gifts, buy1 get 2 free,  and work from home earn more millions
  16. buy any product or service with bill and warranty. dont forget buy a bill with any purchase and keep it safe it will useful for sometime.
  17. do not purchase domain or web hosting from squarebrothers, manashosting companies, these very worst service and they have not any own servers and got many bad reviews in some sites...
Thanks to eservices provider and users

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